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Swamp white oak

Swamp white oak in fall color.

Swamp white oak is a striking tree with attractive peeling bark, especially on young trees. The lustrous, lobed leaves have a two-tone appearance, dark green on top with a silvery-white underside. Fall color is an orange-gold to yellow in mid-autumn. An excellent shade tree for any landscape.

This species is native to the Chicago region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research.

This plant has some cultivated varieties. Go to list of cultivars and related hybrids.


Botanical name:

Quercus bicolor

All common names:

swamp white oak

Family (English):

Beech; Oak

Family (Botanic):


Planting Site:

  • Residential and parks,
  • City parkway,
  • Wide median,
  • Restricted sites

Tree or Plant Type:

  • Tree


  • Deciduous (seasonally loses leaves)

Native Locale:

  • Chicago area,
  • Illinois,
  • North America

Landscape Uses:

  • Parkway/street,
  • Shade tree,
  • Specimen

Size Range:

  • Large tree (more than 40 feet)

Mature Height:

50-60 feet

Mature Width:

50-60 feet

Light Exposure:

  • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

Hardiness Zones:

  • Zone 4,
  • Zone 5 (Chicago),
  • Zone 6,
  • Zone 7,
  • Zone 8

Soil Preference:

  • Acid soil,
  • Moist, well-drained soil


  • Dry sites,
  • Occasional drought,
  • Wet sites,
  • Occasional flooding,
  • Alkaline soil,
  • Clay soil,
  • Road salt

Acid Soils:

  • Tolerant

Alkaline Soils:

  • Moderately Tolerant

Salt Spray:

  • Intolerant

Soil Salt:

  • Moderately Tolerant

Drought Conditions:

  • Tolerant

Poor Drainage:

  • Tolerant

Planting Considerations:

  • Messy fruit/plant parts

Ornamental Interest:

  • Fall color

Seasons of Interest:

  • early winter,
  • midwinter,
  • mid fall,
  • late fall

Flower Color & Fragrance:

  • Inconspicuous

Shape or Form:

  • Broad,
  • Round

Growth Rate:

  • Moderate

Transplants Well:

  • Yes


  • Game birds,
  • Game mammals,
  • Migrant birds,
  • Small mammals

More Information:

Tree & Plant Care

One of the easiest oaks to transplant and more tolerant of poor drainage than other oaks.

Avoid high pH soils or plants may develop chlorotic (yellowing ) leaves.

Tolerant of salt, drought and heat.

Prune oaks in the dormant season to avoid attracting beetles that may carry oak wilt.

Disease, pests, and problems

Anthracnose, occasional powdery mildew, chlorois in high pH soils, and insect galls.

Disease, pests, and problem resistance

Tolerant of black walnut toxicity.

Native geographic location and habitat

Swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)
Swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor)
photo: John Hagstrom

C-Value:  6

Bark color and texture 

Mature bark is a dark gray-brown with blocky ridges,. Young trees develop a flaky, peeling bark that reveals an orange inner bark.

Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture

Alternate, simple, rounded to coarsely lobed leaves with variable wavy margins. Dark green above with silvery-white underside.  Leaves turn to golden or orange brown in fall.

Flower arrangement, shape, and size

Male flowers hang in clusters of catkins.

Female flowers are inconspicuous, tiny spikes in leaf axils.

Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions

Acorns are 1 inch long and enclosed halfway with a warty cap. The cap often remains attached to a stalk (peduncle) once the fruit is ripe and falls from the tree.

Cultivars and their differences

“This plant is a cultivar of a species that is native to the Chicago Region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research. Cultivars are plants produced in cultivation by selective breeding or via vegetative propagation from wild plants identified to have desirable traits."

American Dream® (Quercus bicolor 'JFS-KW12'):  Good resistance to anthracnose and powdery mildew.    This cultivar has a broadly pyramidal shape and dark green foliage changint to yellow brown in fall.

Related hybrids  (between Quercus bicolor and Quercus robur 'Fastigiata)

Kindred Spirit® Ware's Oak (Quercus x warei 'Nadler'):  A columnar cultivar, growing 40 feet high by 6 feet wide; red-orange fall color.  Resistant to drought and powdery mildew.

Regal Prince® Ware's Oak (Quercus x warei 'Long'):  Narrow habit (45 feet high and 20 to 25 feet wide); excellent resistance to borers and powdery mildew.  Yellow fall color.

Location of Quercus bicolor (Swamp white oak) at the Arboretum