Mugo pine is a small to large-sized, shrubby pine adapted for the home landscape. Plants vary in height, texture, and year-round color. Needles remain on plant for up to 5 years.
This plant has some cultivated varieties. Go to list of cultivars.
All Common Names:
Tree or Plant Type:
- Compact tree (10-15 feet),
- Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
- Medium shrub (5-8 feet)
- Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
- Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)
- Zone 3,
- Zone 4,
- Zone 5 (Chicago),
- Zone 6,
- Zone 7
- Moist, well-drained soil
- Dry sites,
- Alkaline soil,
- Clay soil
Season of Interest:
- Early winter,
- Mid winter,
- Late winter,
- Early spring,
- Mid spring,
- Late spring,
- Early summer,
- Mid summer,
- Late summer,
- Early fall,
- Mid fall,
- Late fall
Flower Color & Fragrance:
Shape or Form:
Size & Form
A dense evergreen shrub to multi-trunked dwarf tree. It can vary in size from 5 to 20 feet tall and wide.
Very slow growth rate.
Tree & Plant Care
Prefers a deep, well-drained, loose soil, quite adaptable to high pH soil.
Best in full sun, but one of the few pines to tolerate part shade and windy sites.
Prune lightly for more compact shape by removing part of the new candles (spring growing shoots).
Easily transplanted, does not have a tap root.
Disease, pests, and problems
This plant is susceptible to pine needle scale and pine sawflies.
Native geographic location and habitat
Native to mountainous areas in Central and Southern Europe.
Bark color and texture
Gray brown and scaly but does not peel.
Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture
Needles arranged in bundles of two; stiff and slightly curved needles.
Needles are 1 to 3 inches long, bright green color with a serrated margin.
Needles persist for 5 years.
Flower arrangement, shape, and size
No ornamental value
Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions
A dark gray ovoid cone, 1 to 2 inches long, held in clusters of 2 to 4, or found alone.
Slightly pendulous, tip of cone surrounded by a darker ring.
Donna's Mini Dwarf Mugo (Pinus mugo 'Donna's Mini'): A dense low mounded, miniature evergreen reaching 12 to 18 feet high and 18 to 24 inches wide.
Enci Mugo pine (Pinus mugo ‘Enci’): This cultivar grows 3-4 feet high and 3-5 feet wide with a mounded shape.
Slowmound Dwarf Mugo pine (Pinus mugo 'Slowmound): Rounded, 2 to 3 feet high and wide. Dark green folage, excellent for rock gardens.
Tannenbaum Mugo pine (Pinus mugo 'Tannenbaum'): Compact, pyrimidal shape, 10 to 12 feet high and 5 to 6 feet wide; dark green foliage.
White Bud Dwarf Mugo pine (Pinus mugo 'White Bud'): A 2 to 3 feet high and wide, low mounded dwarf evergreen. Dark needles have a white, waxy winter bud coating adding winter interest.