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  • Cladrastis kentukea (Yellowwood)

    Yellowwood in flower.

    Also known as:

    Yellowwood, American yellowwood
    Choose a yellowwood tree for excellent shade in a small- to medium-sized landscape. Note that the branches of the yellowwood are highly susceptible to ice storm damage.

    Size Range:

    • Large tree (more than 40 feet),
    • Medium tree (25-40 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • North America
  • Clematis terniflora (Sweet autumn clematis)

    Close up of the flowers of sweet autumn clematis.

    Also known as:

    Sweet autumn clematis
    Sweet autumn clematis is a vine that produces an abundance of small, white flowers in late summer and early autumn. It should be used with care as it is considered invasive in some locations.Also known as Clematis maximowicziana.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Clematis texensis (Scarlet clematis)

    Flowers of scarlet clematis, cultivar 'Princess Diana'.

    Also known as:

    Scarlet clematis, Texas clematis
    Scarlet clematis is native only to Texas, but is hardy in more northern climates. The urn-shaped lowers are smaller than many types of clematis and are some shade of scarlet or pink.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • North America
  • Clematis virginiana (Virgin's bower)

    Virgin's bower has small white flowers in late summer.

    Also known as:

    Virgin's bower
    Virgin's bower is a native species of clematis that produces masses of small white flowers in late summer.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Clematis viticella (Italian Clematis)

    Betty Corning, a viticella hybrid, in flower.

    Also known as:

    Italian clematis
    Italian clematis is a species of clematis with purple or violet flowers that are shaped like hanging bells.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Clematis x jackmanii (Jackman's clematis and the Jackman group of hybrids)

    Large purple flowers of 'The President', a jackman hybrid.

    Also known as:

    Jackman's clematis
    Jackman's clematis is a very old and well known clematis with large, dark purple flowers. It is the picture that comes to mind when the word clematis is spoken. There are a number of hybrids derived from this species and they are known as the Jackman group or the Jackman hybrids. These hybrids generally have large flowers.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Clethra alnifolia (Summersweet clethra)

    Flowers of summersweet clethra.

    Also known as:

    Summersweet clethra, Summersweet, Clethra, Sweet Pepperbush
    A wide variety of butterflies and songbirds are attracted to summersweet clethra for its nectar and seeds. Native to the eastern United States, it has lustrous green leaves in the spring, spiky white or pink fragrant flowers during the summer, golden yellow leaves in the fall, and interesting, delicate dried seed capsules in winter to provide exceptional four-season interest.

    Size Range:

    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet),
    • Small shrub (3-5 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily),
    • Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • North America
  • Cobaea scandens (Cup-and-saucer vine (ANNUAL VINE))

    The unique flowers of cup-and-saucer vine.

    Also known as:

    Cup-and-saucer vine, missionary bells, cathedral bells
    Cup-and-saucer vine is an easy to grow annual that supplies a quantity of unique flowers from mid-summer on. The flowers do look like little teacups sitting in saucers.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Comptonia peregrina (Sweet-fern)

    Sweet-fern leaves and fruit.

    Also known as:

    Sweet-fern, Sweetfern
    Sweet-fern is a colony-forming, small shrub with wonderfully aromatic fern-like leaves. This shrub is a useful selection in the landscape for erosion control and naturalizing, due to its tolerance of adverse conditions. It is adaptable to poor, infertile soil and is also drought, salt, and heat resistant.

    Size Range:

    • Small shrub (3-5 feet),
    • Low-growing shrub (under 3 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley)

    Lily of the valley in flower.

    Also known as:

    Lily-of-the-Valley, Lily of the Valley, Lady's tears
    Lily-of-the-valley is an old-fashioned, shade-loving ground cover reaching 6 to 8 inches tall. In mid-spring many bell-shaped, waxy white flowers appear on an erect stalk.

    Size Range:

    • Small plant (6-12 inches),
    • Low-growing plant (under 6 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily),
    • Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Cornus alba (Siberian dogwood)

    Leaves and fruit of Siberian dogwood.

    Also known as:

    Siberian dogwood, Tatarian dogwood
    Siberian dogwood may not have the showiest flowers but it adds a nice spring color to the landscape. It is prized for its dark green summer foliage, red winter stems, and bluish white fruit. Best suited moist areas along a stream or pond edge and in shrub borders.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Cornus alternifolia (Pagoda dogwood)

    Close-up of the flowers of pagoda dogwood.

    Also known as:

    Pagoda dogwood, Alternate-leaved dogwood, Alternate-leaf dogwood
    Pagoda dogwood is an excellent native plant for the four season garden. The unique horizontal branching pattern has a distinct tiered habit, often catching snow in the winter. Clusters of white flowers show up in spring, dark green foliage turns a beautiful burgundy-red in fall, and blue-black berries attract many birds.

    Size Range:

    • Small tree (15-25 feet),
    • Compact tree (10-15 feet),
    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Cornus amomum (Silky dogwood)

    Habit of silky dogwood.

    Also known as:

    silky dogwood
    Silky dogwood is a large to medium-sized native shrub with creamy white spring flowers, dark green foliage, and reddish stems and burgundy fall color. A great 4-season plant for naturalizing, in mass, and in shrub borders, especially in moist sites.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily),
    • Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Cornus canadensis (Bunchberry)

    Also known as:

    Bunchberry, dwarf cornel, creeping dogwood
    Bunchberry is native in the far northern portions of the United States, but is rare in Illinois. It is a beautiful ground cover with flowers that resemble those of flowering dogwood. Its need for acid soils may limit its use in Illinois.

    Size Range:

    • Small plant (6-12 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Cornus drummondii (Rough-leaved dogwood)

    Leaves and fruit of rough-leaved dogwood.

    Also known as:

    Rough-leaved dogwood, roughleaf dogwood
    Rough-leaved dogwood is a native large shrub or small tree, often mistaken for gray dogwood. Named for the rough textured leaves, it has fleshy white fruit, dark green foliage that turns burgundy red fall color. Best used for naturalizing in moist areas. May be difficult to find in nurseries.

    Size Range:

    • Small tree (15-25 feet),
    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Cornus florida (Flowering dogwood)

    Flowering dogwood in full flower.

    Also known as:

    Flowering dogwood
    Flowering dogwood is a small to medium woodland understory tree, native throughout most of the eastern United States. Showy white, red or pink flowering bracts appear before the leaves in early spring. Dark green summer foliage turns a brilliant reddish purple in fall. It is sensitive to adverse soil and environmental conditions such as road salt and pollution.

    Size Range:

    • Medium tree (25-40 feet),
    • Small tree (15-25 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily),
    • Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Cornus kousa (Kousa dogwood)

    Flowers of kousa dogwood.

    Also known as:

    Kousa dogwood
    Kousa dogwood is an excellent small specimen tree. Two outstanding characteristics are the four-petaled, white flowers that appear above the foliage in June and reddish-purple fall color. In the Midwest, this is a hardier substitute for the acid-loving flowering dogwood. The shallow root system will benefit from a layer of mulch to maintain a cool root environment.

    Size Range:

    • Medium tree (25-40 feet),
    • Small tree (15-25 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Cornus mas (Cornelian-cherry dogwood)

    Flowers of Cornelian-cherry dogwood.

    Also known as:

    cornelian-cherry dogwood, corneliancherry dogwood
    Cornelian-cherry dogwood is a small, 20- to 25-foot-high tree or large shrub that thrives in well-drained urban conditions as a specimen plant, in masses, near a patio, or as a hedge. The tree is native to Europe and Asia.

    Size Range:

    • Small tree (15-25 feet),
    • Compact tree (10-15 feet),
    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Cornus officinalis (Japanese cornel)

    Japanese cornel flowering in early spring.

    Also known as:

    Japanese cornel, Japanese cornelian-cherry, Asian dogwood
    Japanese cornel is very similar to the popular cornelian-cherry dogwood (Cornus mas). It has the same bright yellow flowers in early spring, followed by oblong cherry-red fruits. Flowering occurs slightly earlier on this species and the form is more open. It can be grown as a large shrub or small tree.

    Size Range:

    • Small tree (15-25 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Cornus pumila (Dwarf dogwood)

    Early season leaves of dwarf dogwood.

    Also known as:

    Dwarf dogwood, dwarf red-tipped dogwood, dwarf redtwig dogwood
    Dwarf dogwood, also known as red-tipped dogwood, is a small compact, mounded shrub reaching 2 to 3 feet high and 3 to 4 feet wide. New leaves emerge purplish-red leaf and leaf tips remain red as the rest of leaf matures to green. In late spring, abundant clusters of slightly fragrant flowers attract butterflies. The mature black fruit are a favorite of birds. Use in a group or as a low hedge.

    Size Range:

    • Low-growing shrub (under 3 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Cornus racemosa (Gray dogwood)

    Flowers of gray dogwood.

    Also known as:

    Gray dogwood, Panicled dogwood
    Gray dogwood is a very adaptable, native shrub that is excellent for naturalizing, especially in difficult sites, such as pond and stream banks. Although its suckering, spreading habit makes it impractical for formal plantings, it can be incorporated into the shrub border and useful as a mass planting. Creamy white clusters of flowers in May are followed by white berries in late summer that are quickly eaten by birds.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily),
    • Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Cornus sanguinea (Blood-twigged dogwood)

    Winter form of the 'Midwinter Fire' cultivar of blood-twigged dogwood.

    Also known as:

    Blood-twigged dogwood, common dogwood, dogberry, European dogwood, bloodtwig dogwood
    Blood-twigged dogwood is a medium-sized shrub, popular mainly for its straight stems and branches, which turn a mix of green and red in winter. It has flat-topped fluffy clusters of white flowers, more smelly than fragrant, in late summer, followed by small black fruit.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Cornus sericea subsp. sericea (Red-osier dogwood)

    Winter form of red-osier dogwood.

    Also known as:

    Red-osier dogwood, redosier dogwood, red osier dogwood, red twig dogwood
    Red-osier dogwood is a large erect shrub best suited where the background, such as evergreens, will show off the dark red winter stems. Besides attractive, red stems in the winter, red-osier dogwood has yellowish-white flowers that appear in late May to early June and bluish-white fruit borne in late summer. This species was formerly known as Cornus stolonifera.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Cornus x rutgersensis (C. florida x C. kousa) (Hybrid flowering dogwood)

    Flowers of Aurora, a selection of the hybrid flowering dogwood.

    Also known as:

    hybrid flowering dogwood
    Hybrid flowering dogwood, a cross between flowering dogwood and Kousa dogwood, is represented by several cultivars in the trade. Most are white-flowered (Stellar Pink® has pink flowers). These cultivars are resistant to dogwood borer and dogwood anthracnose (a serious disease).

    Size Range:

    • Small tree (15-25 feet),
    • Compact tree (10-15 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Corylopsis spicata (Spiked winter-hazel)

    Early spring flowers of spiked winter-hazel.

    Also known as:

    Spiked winter-hazel, spiked winter hazel
    Spiked winter-hazel is one of the first flowering shrubs in early spring. Profuse, 1- to 2-inch-long pendulous racemes of pale yellow, cup-shaped flowers appear before the leaves. Upright, spreading shrub reaches 5 to 7 feet high, emerging leaves are reddish-purple changing to a blue-green. Excellent in sun or shade. May be difficult to find in nurseries.

    Size Range:

    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet),
    • Small shrub (3-5 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Corylus americana (American hazelnut)

    Leaves of American hazelnut.

    Also known as:

    American hazelnut, American Filbert, American hazel
    American hazelnut is a thicket-forming native shrub, excellent for naturalizing, woodland gardens and shade areas. Showy male flowers (catkins) add early spring interest, dark green leaves turn a beautiful kaleidoscope of colors in the fall. The nuts mature from September to October, attracting seed-eating birds, such as blue jays and woodpeckers.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Corylus avellana (European hazelnut)

    Leaves of European hazelnut.

    Also known as:

    European hazelnut, European filbert, European hazel, filbert, giant filbert, hazelnut, cobnut
    European hazelnut is often grown as a large shrub, but it can also be used as a small tree. This species produces edible hazelnuts or filberts.

    Size Range:

    • Small tree (15-25 feet),
    • Compact tree (10-15 feet),
    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Corylus colurna (Turkish hazelnut)

    Leaves of Turkish hazelnut.

    Also known as:

    Turkish hazelnut, Turkish hazel, Turkish filbert
    Turkish hazelnut is an excellent hardy tree for lawns, street plantings, and urban conditions. Its heavy-textured, dark green foliage is free of insect and disease. This tree is also pH adaptable and tolerant of heat, cold, and drought once it is established.

    Size Range:

    • Large tree (more than 40 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Cotinus coggygria (Eurasian smoke tree)

    Yellow fall color of Eurasian smoke tree

    Also known as:

    Eurasian smoke tree, Smoke tree, Smoke bush, Smoketree, Smokebush
    The outstanding feature of Eurasian smoke tree is the large, airy, plume-like stalks that hold the small flowers. These are covered with hairs that provide the appearance of a puff of smoke.

    Size Range:

    • Compact tree (10-15 feet),
    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Cotinus obovatus (American smoke tree)

    Fall color of American smoke tree.

    Also known as:

    American smoke tree, American smoketree, Chittamwood
    American smoke tree (Cotinus obovatus; syn. Cotinus americanus) is a native of North America, but is little used in home landscapes. This small to medium tree produces the same 'smoke' (hairy fruit stalks) as it's Eurasian cousin, smoke bush and also offers excellent fall color.

    Size Range:

    • Medium tree (25-40 feet),
    • Small tree (15-25 feet),
    • Compact tree (10-15 feet),
    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • North America

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