fbpx Bog birch | The Morton Arboretum

Bog birch

Fruit and leaves of bog birch.

Bog birch is common in the upper Midwest. It is a medium-sized, short-lived, clump-forming shrub for wet habitats. It may be difficult to find in the nursery trade.

This species is native to the Chicago region according to Swink and Wilhelm's Plants of the Chicago Region, with updates made according to current research.

Botanical name:

Betula pumila

All Common Names:

bog birch; American dwarf birch; dwarf birch; low birch; swamp birch

Family (English):


Family (Botanic):


Tree or Plant Type:

  • Shrub


  • Deciduous (seasonally loses leaves)

Native Locale:

  • Chicago area,
  • Illinois,
  • North America

Landscape Uses:

  • Massing,
  • Specimen

Size Range:

  • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
  • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

Mature Height:

5 to 10 feet high

Mature Width:

5-10 feet wide

Light Exposure:

  • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

Hardiness Zones:

  • Zone 2,
  • Zone 3,
  • Zone 4,
  • Zone 5 (Chicago),
  • Zone 6

Soil Preference:

  • Alkaline soil,
  • Wet soil


  • Wet sites,
  • Occasional flooding,
  • Alkaline soil,
  • Clay soil,
  • Road salt

Acid Soils:

  • Prefers

Alkaline Soils:

  • Moderately Tolerant

Salt Spray:

  • Moderately Tolerant

Soil Salt:

  • Moderately Tolerant

Drought Conditions:

  • Intolerant

Poor Drainage:

  • Requires

Planting Considerations:

  • Intolerant of pollution,
  • May be difficult to find in nurseries

Ornamental Interest:

  • Fall color,
  • Persistent fruit/seeds,
  • Attractive bark

Season of Interest:

  • Early winter,
  • Mid winter,
  • Late winter,
  • Late spring,
  • Early fall,
  • Mid fall

Flower Color & Fragrance:

  • Inconspicuous

Shape or Form:

  • Mounded,
  • Multi-stemmed,
  • Open,
  • Thicket-forming,
  • Upright

Growth Rate:

  • Moderate

More Information:

Tree & Plant Care

A colony-forming shrub of bogs and lake borders. 
Requires moist to wet areas in full sun. Prefers alkaline soil,  but will tolerate some acid. 
Shallow fibrous root system, difficult to transplant.
Relatively short-lived. Difficult to find in nurseries.

Disease, pests, and problems

Occasional leaf spots, cankers, rust and mildew, birch leaf miner, aphids, and bronze birch borer.

Native geographic location and habitat

C-Value: 10
Found in wet, swampy, marsh and bogs in northern Midwest.

Attracts birds & butterflies

Numerous birds favor seeds in late fall.

Bark color and texture 

Young bark is thin, reddish brown with warty lenticels. Older bark becomes dark gray and peels with age.

Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture

Alternate. A fleshy, 1 1/2 to 2-inch oval to ovate leaf, with coarsely toothed margins.
Medium green turns a yellow fall color.

Flower arrangement, shape, and size

Cylindrical female catkins are a reddish color, male catkins along same stems are yellow.

Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions

Upright, cone-like, winged seeds

Location of Betula pumila (Bog birch) at the Arboretum