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TREES & plants

Sweet birch

Sweet birch is an attractive tree for lawns and naturalized areas, with shiny, red-brown bark and yellow foliage. Native to the eastern United States, the tree also attracts beautiful butterflies to the landscape, serving as a caterpillar/larval host. This species is resistant to bronze birch borer (BBB).

Botanical name: 
Betula lenta
All Common Names: 
sweet birch, black birch, cherry birch
Family (English): 
Birch
Family (Botanic): 
Betulaceae
Tree or Plant Type: 
  • Tree
Native Locale: 
  • North America
Planting Site: 
  • Residential and parks
Landscape Uses: 
  • Specimen
  • Shade
Size Range: 
  • Large tree (more than 40 feet)
Mature Height: 
40-50 feet
Mature Width: 
35-45 feet
Light Exposure: 
  • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)
Hardiness Zones: 
  • Zone 3
  • Zone 4
  • Zone 5
  • Zone 6
  • Zone 7
Soil Preference: 
  • Acid soil
  • Dry soil
Acid Soils: 
  • Tolerant
Alkaline Soils: 
  • Tolerant
Salt Spray: 
  • Tolerant
Soil Salt: 
  • Intolerant
Drought Conditions: 
  • Intolerant
Poor Drainage: 
  • Tolerant
Planting Considerations: 
  • May be difficult to find in nurseries
Foliage: 
  • Deciduous (seasonally loses leaves)
Ornamental Interest: 
  • Attractive bark
  • Spring blossoms
  • Fall color
Time of Year: 
  • Early fall
  • Mid fall
Flower Color & Fragrance: 
  • Inconspicuous
Shape or Form: 
  • Pyramidal
  • Oval
Transplants Well: 
  • No
Wildlife: 
  • Game birds
  • Butterflies
  • Songbirds
  • Small mammals
  • Insect pollinators
More Information: 

Sweet birch (Betula lenta)Sweet birch (Betula lenta)
Size and Form

50 to 60 feet high and 40 to 50 feet wide; rounded at maturity

Tree & Plant Care

Sweet birch occurs in moist, well-drained woodland slopes. Best grown in full sun.
Spring transplant only.
Avoid pruning in spring as birches tend to 'bleed' (lose large quantities of sap).

Disease, pests and problems

Cankers, aphids, leaf miners
Moderately susceptible to bronze birch borer.
Sensitive to soil compaction, air pollution.

Disease, pest, and problem resistance

Tolerant of black walnut toxicity

Native geographic location and habitat

Native to the eastern United States; often found in rocky sites.

Attracts birds & butterflies

Host to the tiger swallowtail, mourning cloak butterflies.

Bark color and texture

Young trees have a  smooth, shiny, red-brown with rows of white lenticels.
Mature bark brown-black and scaly
Crushed stems smell like wintergreen.

Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture

Simple, alternate leaves;  2 to 6 inches long;  broadly ovate ; doubly toothed margins
Medium green in summer turning golden yellow in fall.

Flower arrangement, shape, and size

2 to 3 inch male catkins are a tips of branches and hang down when opening.
Female flowers are smaller and upright along same stem.

Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions

Fruit is an erect catkin with many tiny winged seeds. They ripen in fall.