Mugo pine is delightful, popular shrubby pine adapted for the home landscape. Plants vary in height, texture, and year-round color.
- Evergreen (foliage year-round)
- Zone 3
- Zone 4
- Zone 5
- Zone 6
- Zone 7
- Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)
- Partial sun (4-6 hrs direct light daily)
- Partial shade (4-6 hrs indirect light daily)
- Dry sites
- Alkaline soil
- Clay soil
- Moist, well-drained soil
- Compact tree (10-15 feet)
- Large shrub (more than 8 feet)
- Early winter
- Mid winter
- Late winter
- Early spring
- Mid spring
- Late spring
- Early summer
- Mid summer
- Late summer
- Early fall
- Mid fall
- Late fall
Size & Form
A dense evergreen shrub to multi-trunked dwarf tree which varies in size from 5 to 20 feet tall and wide.
Very slow growth rate.
Tree & Plant Care
Prefers a deep, well-drained, loose soil, but also quite adaptable. Tolerant of high pH soil.
Best in full sun, but one of the few pines tolerant of part shade and windy sites.
Prune lightly for more compact shape by removing part of the new candles (spring growing shoots).
Easily transplanted, does not have a tap root.
Disease, pests, and problems
This plant is susceptible to pine needle scale and pine sawflies.
Native geographic location and habitat
Native to mountainous areas in Central and Southern Europe.
Bark color and texture
Gray brown and scaly but does not peel.
Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture
Needles in bundles of two, rigid and slightly curved needles.
Needles 1 to 2 inch long, bright green color with a serrated margin.
Needles persist for 5 years.
Flower arrangement, shape, and size
No ornamental value
Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions
A dark gray ovoid cone, 1 to 2 inches long, held in clusters of 2 to 4, or found alone.
Slightly pendulous, tip of cone surrounded by a darker ring.
Cultivars and their differences
Donna's Mini Dwarf Mugo (Pinus mugo 'Donna's Mini'): A dense low mounded, miniature evergreen reaching 12 to 18 feet high and 18 to 24 inches wide.
Enci Mugo Pine (Pinus mugo ‘Enci’): This cultivar grows 3-4 feet high and 3-5 feet wide with a mounded shape
White Bud Dwarf Mugo Pine (Pinus mugo 'White Bud'): A 2 to 3 foot high and wide, low mounded dwarf evergreen. Dark needles have a white, waxy winter bud coating adding winter interest.