This large, deciduous magnolia tree is excellent for large properties such as parks, golf courses, and naturalized areas. Cucumbertree's wide-spreading branches are covered with dark green leaves that turn an attractive yellow-brown in the fall. Although its flowers are not as showy as those of other magnolia species, the cucumbertree yields interesting pinkish-red fruit pods.
- Deciduous (seasonally loses leaves)
- North America
- Residential and parks
- Shade tree
- Large tree (more than 40 feet)
- Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
- Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)
- Zone 3,
- Zone 4,
- Zone 5 (Chicago),
- Zone 6,
- Zone 7,
- Zone 8
- Acid soil,
- Moist, well-drained soil
- Intolerant of pollution,
- May be difficult to find in nurseries
- Summer blossoms,
- Fall color,
- Persistent fruit/seeds,
- Showy fruit,
- Showy flowers,
- Attractive bark
- Late spring,
- Early fall,
- Mid fall
photo: John HagstromTree & Plant Care
Best planted in the spring. Does well in both full sun and partial shade. Will not do well in windy or polluted sites.
Disease, pests, and problems
Very few disease and insect problems. Scale insects can attack occasionally. Leaves may scorch during summer in dry sites.
Disease, pest, and problem resistance
Tolerant of black walnut toxicity.
Native geographic location and habitat
The native distribution of this tree is somewhat scattered in the eastern United States, It is found in isolated areas in many states and found most frequently in Appalachia. Commonly found growing in sheltered, wooded ravines.
Bark color and texture
The bark is gray and fairly smooth when young, maturing to shallowly furrowed.
Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture
Simple, alternate leaves with entire leaf margins. These leaves are larger (4 to 10 inches) than many species of magnolia commonly used in the landscape. Leaves are dark green in summer, becoming attractive yellow-brown in fall.
Flower arrangement, shape, and size
Large flowers, borne singly in late spring after many other magnolias have flowered. Not as showy as other magnolias due the color of the flower (yellow-green) and the fact that the foliage has emerged by flowering time.
Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions
A 2 to 3 inch long aggregate fruit with a knobby surface, pinkish-red in color, resembling a small cucumber. The fruit splits open in fall to reveal the reddish-orange seed. This species tends to produce more fruit that other magnolias.