All Common Names:
Season of Interest:
- Early summer,
- Mid summer,
- Late summer
Flower Color & Fragrance:
- Alkaline soil,
- Dry soil
Shape or Form:
Tree & Plant Care
Best in full sun to part shade.
Tolerates the poorest of soils; does well in dry or alkaline situations.
Extremely cold- and drought-tolerant once established.
Disease, pests, and problems
Leaf spots, mildew and rust.
May be difficult to find in nurseries.
Disease, pest, and problem resistance
Tolerant of dry conditions and salt.
Native geographic location and habitat
Dry, rocky, or moist soils of open forests, thickets, streambanks, dry floodplains, meadows, and disturbed areas.
Upper Midwest and North America, rare in the Chicago area.
Attracts birds, pollinators, or wildlife
When present, fruit attracts birds.
Bark color and texture
Mature stems are brown and slightly scaly, young twigs are medium brown and covered with brownish, flattened scales. Pith is reddish brown.
Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture
Opposite, short-stalked leaves, 1/2 to 2 inches long and 1 inch wide. Leaves are oval to narrowly egg-shaped with entire margins. The upper surface of leaves is dark green. The underside has a fuzzy coating of whitish-silver hairs and flaky rust-colored scales that can be rubbed off.
Flower arrangement, shape, and size
Small, inconspicuous flowers appear in clusters before leaves open.
Yellowish-green, funnel-shaped female and brownish-yellow disk-shaped male flowers are borne on separate plants.
Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions
Requires male and female plants for fruit set. Not showy, but bright red, fleshy, oval-shaped fruits ripen in summer. Edible.
Tree or Plant Type:
- Chicago area,
- North America
- Mixed border,
- Medium shrub (5-8 feet)
- Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
- Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)
- Zone 2,
- Zone 3,
- Zone 4,
- Zone 5 (Chicago),
- Zone 6