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  • Crataegus monogyna (Single-seeded hawthorn)

    Also known as:

    single-seeded hawthorn, oneseed hawthorn, common hawthorn
    Single-seeded hawthorn, like other hawthorns, bears white flowers in spring, followed by red fruits. Unlike other hawthorns, the flowers are sweetly scented (most hawthorn flowers have an "off" odor).

    Size Range:

    • Medium tree (25-40 feet),
    • Small tree (15-25 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Crataegus phaenopyrum (Washington hawthorn)

    Leaves and fruit of Washington hawthorn.

    Also known as:

    Washington hawthorn
    Washington hawthorn is one of the commonly planted hawthorn species. It has the typical white flowers, followed by red fruit that persist into winter. This species is fairly thorny and is prone to the cedar-rust diseases.

    Size Range:

    • Medium tree (25-40 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Crataegus punctata (Dotted hawthorn)

    Dotted hawthorn in full flower.

    Also known as:

    Dotted hawthorn
    Dotted hawthorn is named for its fruit which are red with white specks. This species has thorns that are up to three inches in length. Dotted hawthorn is very susceptible to the cedar rust diseases.

    Size Range:

    • Medium tree (25-40 feet),
    • Small tree (15-25 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Crataegus viridis (Green hawthorn)

    Flowers of green hawthorn.

    Also known as:

    green hawthorn
    Green hawthorn offers beautiful flowers and fruit and is more disease resistant than other species of hawthorn. The cultivar 'Winter King' is more commonly sold than the species.

    Size Range:

    • Medium tree (25-40 feet),
    • Small tree (15-25 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Daphne mezereum (February daphne)

    Flowers of February daphne.

    Also known as:

    February daphne; mezereon; paradise-plant, spurge laurel, garland flower
    February daphne is a dense, rounded shrub with highly fragrant rosy-lilac flowers in early spring. Small red fruit appear later in the summer. A plant for well-drained soils only, may be short-lived.

    Size Range:

    • Small shrub (3-5 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Daphne x burkwoodii (Burkwood's daphne)

    Flowers and leaves of Burkwood's Daphne, cultivar 'Carol Mackie'.

    Also known as:

    Burkwood's daphne, burkwood daphne
    Burkwood's daphne is a semi-evergreen shrub for sandy, well-drained soils. The wide-spreading, 3- to 4-foot high shrub is grown for its extremely fragrant flower clusters in May. This plant will suffer in cold winters and should be located in a protected site. The cultivar 'Carol Mackie' is a popular variegated form. May be difficult to find in local nurseries.

    Size Range:

    • Small shrub (3-5 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Deschampsia cespitosa (Tufted hair grass)

    Turfted hair grass, cultivar Schottland, in autumn.

    Also known as:

    Tufted hair grass, tussock grass
    Tufted hair grass is a clump-forming, cool season grass. This grass has a wide natural range, being found in Europe, Asia and North America.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Deutzia gracilis (Slender deutzia)

    Flower buds of slender deutzia.

    Also known as:

    Slender deutzia
    Slender arching stems covered in clusters of white flowers grace this shrub in late spring. Use in front of border, edging a walkway, or in groups. A yearly pruning is needed to keep deutzia looking tidy.

    Size Range:

    • Small shrub (3-5 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Deutzia lemoinei (Lemoine's deutzia)

    Flowers of lemoine's deutzia.

    Also known as:

    Lemoine's deutzia, lemoine deutzia
    Lemoine's deutzia is a mounded, densely twiggy shrub with erect branches. Outstanding pure white flower clusters appear in May. Medium-green foliage turns a clear yellow in the fall. Use in groups, shrub borders, and foundation plantings.

    Size Range:

    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Deutzia scabra (Rough-leaved deutzia)

    Leaves of rough-leaved deutzia.

    Also known as:

    Rough-leaved deutzia, roughleaf deutzia, fuzzy deutzia
    Rough-leaved deutzia is an old-fashioned, large, upright to oval, spreading shrub reaching 6 to 10 feet tall and 4 to 8 feet wide. The spreading, arching stems are laden with showy, pink-tinged white flower panicles in spring. The dark, peeling bark adds winter texture. Best at back of border or use as a screen. May be difficult to find in nursery with newer and more improved plants available.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Dichanthelium clandestinum (syn. Panicum clandestinum) (Deer tongue grass)

    Also known as:

    Deer tongue grass
    Deer tongue grass is a native grass with an exotic bamboo-like appearance. This warm season, clumping grass tolerates dryness and infertile soils very well. It can be used for naturalizing in tough sites.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Diervilla lonicera (Bush-honeysuckle)

    Bush-honeysuckle in flower.

    Also known as:

    Bush-honeysuckle, Dwarf bushhoneysuckle, bush honeysuckle
    Bush-honeysuckle is a low-growing, spreading, native shrub providing yellow flowers for several weeks in early summer. Reddish young stems is 4-sided, contrasting with dark green leaves.

    Size Range:

    • Small shrub (3-5 feet),
    • Low-growing shrub (under 3 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Diervilla rivularis (Georgia bush-honeysuckle)

    Flowers of Georgia bush-honeysuckle, cultivar 'Morton' (Summer Stars).

    Also known as:

    Georgia bush-honeysuckle, Georgia bush honeysuckle, mountain bush honeysuckle, hairy bush-honeysuckle, riverbank bush honeysuckle
    Georgia bush-honeysuckle, also called mountain bush-honeysuckle is a fast growing, eastern U.S. native found in the southern Appalachian Mountains in moist wooded areas and woodland edges. The mounding habit and arching stems produce small clusters of yellow trumpet blooms in July and August. New growth emerges with a bronze-red foliage, which later turns green then to a lovely red in the fall. Adapts to most soils and is drought tolerant when established.

    Size Range:

    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet),
    • Small shrub (3-5 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • North America
  • Diervilla sessilifolia (Southern bush-honeysuckle)

    Fall color of Southern bush-honeysuckle, cultivar 'Butterfly'.

    Also known as:

    Southern bush-honeysuckle, Southern bush honeysuckle
    Southern bush-honeysuckle is a vigorous, 3 to 5 feet high, spreading shrub with rich green foliage that turns purplish in the fall. The 2- to 3-inch-diameter sulfur-yellow flowers appear in mid-summer. The suckering nature of the plant can form colonies making it ideal as a mass planting or used to stabilize a slope. Native to the southeastern United States.

    Size Range:

    • Small shrub (3-5 feet),
    • Low-growing shrub (under 3 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • North America
  • Diospyros virginiana (Persimmon)

    Persimmon fruit.

    Also known as:

    Persimmon, Common Persimmon
    Persimmon is a southeastern U.S. native tree that is easily recognized in winter by its unusual rugged, blocky bark. Female trees produce large orange-brown fleshy fruit that are edible after the first frost. Thick, dark green leaves turn a yellow fall color. Native persimmon is not readily available in nurseries, but several selected cultivars are produced for their edible fruit.

    Size Range:

    • Large tree (more than 40 feet),
    • Medium tree (25-40 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Dirca palustris (Leatherwood)

    Leaves of leatherwood.

    Also known as:

    Leatherwood, Eastern Leatherwood
    Leatherwood is an interesting, under-used native shrub with small yellow flowers in early spring before leaves emerge. Light green leaves turn a bright yellow color in autumn. This plant is difficult to find in commercial nurseries.

    Size Range:

    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet),
    • Small shrub (3-5 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily),
    • Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Echinacea purpurea (Purple coneflower)

    Purple coneflower in full flower.

    Also known as:

    Purple coneflower, broad-leaved purple coneflower
    Purple coneflower is a native wildflower of Illinois and the Chicago region. It offers color in the middle of summer and cones full of seeds for birds during winter.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches),
    • Medium plant (12-24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Eleutherococcus sieboldianus (Syn. Acanthopanax sieboliana) (Siebold's shrub-ginseng)

    Also known as:

    Siebold's shrub-ginseng, Siebold shrub ginseng, fiveleaf aralia
    Siebold's shrub-ginseng, also known as five-leaved aralia, is an upright, deciduous shrub reaching 8 to 10 feet high and wide. Medium green, palmately compound leaves hold late into fall. Stout gray arching stems have thorns making it a good barrier shrub.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)

    Seed heads of Canada wild rye.

    Also known as:

    Canada wild rye, Great Plains wild rye, nodding wild rye, Canada lyme grass
    Canada wild rye is a native grass that was part of the tallgrass prairie. It is a cool season, clumping grass, best used in areas where naturalizing is desirable as it has a tendency to self seed.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Elymus hystrix (syn. Hystrix patula) (Bottlebrush grass)

    Seed heads of bottlebrush grass.

    Also known as:

    Bottlebrush grass, Eastern bottlebrush grass, glumeless wild rye
    Bottlebrush grass is a native grass that is found in wooded areas rather than in prairies. It can be used for naturalizing in shady sites.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Elymus virginicus (Virginia wild rye)

    Seed heads of Virginia wild rye.

    Also known as:

    Virginia wild rye, Virginia lyme grass
    Virginia wild rye is a cool season, clumping grass similar to Canada wild rye (Elymus canadensis). It is more tolerant of shade and prefers a more fertile soil.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Epimedium grandiflorum (Longspur barrenwort)

    Queen Esta longspur barrenwort has colorful foliage.

    Also known as:

    Longspur barrenwort, longspur epimedium, longspur bishop's hat, bishop's cap,fairy wings
    There are several species of barrenwort that are commonly used as ground covers, and longspur barrenwort is one of the showiest, due to its relatively large flowers. Other species and hybrids of barrenwort are listed at the end of this page. All of them do well in shady sites.

    Size Range:

    • Medium plant (12-24 inches),
    • Small plant (6-12 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily),
    • Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Eragrostis spectabilis (Purple love grass)

    Purple flowers form a cloud-like haze over purple love grass.

    Also known as:

    Purple love grass
    Purple love grass is a Midwestern native that produces reddish-purple flowers and fruit that hang over the plant like a cloud. This is a warm season, clumping grass.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches),
    • Medium plant (12-24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Eragrostis trichodes (Sand love grass)

    Also known as:

    Sand love grass
    Sand love grass is a Midwest native that prefers sandy or well-drained sites. It is a warm season, clumping grass. It will self- seed.

    Size Range:

    • Large plant (more than 24 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Eucommia ulmoides (Hardy rubber-tree)

    Leaves of hardy rubber-tree.

    Also known as:

    Hardy rubber-tree, Hardy rubber tree
    Hardy rubber-tree, a native of China, can be used in the landscape as a shade tree. It has an attractive round to broad-spreading form and during summer, the thick leaves are a very glossy green.

    Size Range:

    • Large tree (more than 40 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Euonymus alatus (Burning bush)

    Burning bush in fall color.

    Also known as:

    Burning bush; burningbush; burning-bush; winged euonymus
    Burning bush is a popular large shrub common in yards and gardens throughout North America. This Asian shrub is invasive and should not be planted. It is known for its bright red fall color. It has invasive traits that enable it to spread aggressively. This shrub is under observation and may be listed on official invasive species lists in the near future.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Euonymus atropurpureus (Wahoo)

    The fruit of the wahoo.

    Also known as:

    Wahoo, Eastern Wahoo, Eastern burning bush
    Wahoo is a Chicago region native offering beautiful fruit in fall. It may be difficult to find this species in local nurseries.

    Size Range:

    • Small tree (15-25 feet),
    • Compact tree (10-15 feet),
    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Chicago area,
    • Illinois,
    • North America
  • Euonymus europaeus (Spindle tree)

    Flowers of spindle tree.

    Also known as:

    Spindle tree, European spindle tree, European euonymus, common spindle tree
    Spindle tree is an European species of euonymus with attractive fall color and interesting fruit capsules. Birds are attracted to the fruit and tend to spread them freely to the point that this plant has become weedy and invasive in some areas.

    Size Range:

    • Small tree (15-25 feet),
    • Compact tree (10-15 feet),
    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Euonymus fortunei (Wintercreeper)

    Wintercreeper as a ground cover.

    Also known as:

    Wintercreeper, Wintercreeper euonymus
    Wintercreeper is a fast-growing, versatile ground cover, shrub or vine. Many different cultivars are available. Wintercreeper should be used with care as it is considered invasive in some locations.

    Size Range:

    • Medium plant (12-24 inches),
    • Small plant (6-12 inches),
    • Low-growing plant (under 6 inches)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily),
    • Full shade (4 hrs or less of light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native
  • Exochorda racemosa (Common pearlbush)

    White flowers of pearlbush, cultivar 'The Bride'.

    Also known as:

    Pearlbush, common pearlbush, Turkestan pearlbush, Chinese pearlbush, Wilson's pearlbush
    Common pearlbush is an old-fashioned, but not commonly used shrub. This attractive and fairly long-blooming shrub has small, round, pearl-like flower buds that open in sequence to pure white, five-petaled flowers. Foliage is medium green turning to a soft yellow fall color. Older bark peels off, similar to birch, adding winter interest.

    Size Range:

    • Large shrub (more than 8 feet),
    • Medium shrub (5-8 feet)

    Light Exposure:

    • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily),
    • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)

    Native Locale:

    • Non-native

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