TREES & plants

Balkan pine

Needles of Balkan pine.

Balkan pine is not well known, but has potential to be an attractive landscape plant in residential yards.  This tree may be difficult to find in local nurseries. 

This plant has some cultivated varieties. Go to list of cultivars.


Botanical name: 
Pinus peuce
All Common Names: 
Balkan pine, Macedonian pine
Family (English): 
Family (Botanic): 
Tree or Plant Type: 
  • Tree
  • Evergreen (foliage year-round)
Native Locale: 
  • Non-native
Planting Site: 
  • Residential and parks
Landscape Uses: 
  • Shade tree, 
  • Specimen
Size Range: 
  • Large tree (more than 40 feet), 
  • Medium tree (25-40 feet)
Mature Height: 
30-60 feet
Mature Width: 
20-25 feet
Light Exposure: 
  • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)
Hardiness Zones: 
  • Zone 4, 
  • Zone 5 (Chicago), 
  • Zone 6, 
  • Zone 7
Soil Preference: 
  • Acid soil, 
  • Moist, well-drained soil
Acid Soils: 
  • Prefers
Alkaline Soils: 
  • Moderately Tolerant
Salt Spray: 
  • Intolerant
Soil Salt: 
  • Moderately Tolerant
Drought Conditions: 
  • Tolerant
Poor Drainage: 
  • Moderately Tolerant
Planting Considerations: 
  • May be difficult to find in nurseries
Ornamental Interest: 
  • Edible fruit
Season of Interest: 
  • Early winter, 
  • Mid winter, 
  • Late winter, 
  • Early spring, 
  • Mid spring, 
  • Late spring, 
  • Early summer, 
  • Mid summer, 
  • Late summer, 
  • Early fall, 
  • Mid fall, 
  • Late fall
Flower Color & Fragrance: 
  • Inconspicuous
Shape or Form: 
  • Narrow, 
  • Pyramidal
Growth Rate: 
  • Slow
Transplants Well: 
  • Yes
More Information: 

Tree & Plant Care

Best in full sun, relatively tolerant of most soils as long as well-drained.
omewhat tolerant of salt.
Slow growing.

Disease, pests, and problems

Susceptible to a number of diseases including Diplodia tip blight, needle casts, and pine wilt.
Susceptible to a number of pests including pine sawfly, pine needle scale and Zimmerman pine moth.

Balkan pine (Pinus peuce)Balkan pine (Pinus peuce) conesphoto: John Hagstrom

Native geographic location and habitat

Native to the Balkans.

Bark color and texture 

Gray-brown, becoming scaly with age.

Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture

Evergreen needles in bundles of 5; 3 to 4 inches long

Flower arrangement, shape, and size

Monoecious, separate male and female flowers.  Not ornamentally important.

Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions

Woody cones, 3-6 inches long.

Cultivars and their differences

Pacific Blue Balkan pine (Pinus peuce 'Pacific Blue'):  Blue needles and a more upright habit than the species.


Pinus peuce or Balkan pine