TREES & plants


This stately conifer, native to the Midwest, often is found in groupings in parks and larger spaces, along streets, and around lakes. Unlike most cone-bearing trees, bald-cypress loses its needles each winter and grows a new set in spring. The russet-red fall color of its lacy needles is one of its outstanding characteristics. Hardy and tough, this tree will adapt to a wide range of soil types, whether wet, dry, or even swampy. 

This plant has some cultivated varieties. Go to list of cultivars.


Botanical name: 
Taxodium distichum
All Common Names: 
bald-cypress, bald cypress, baldcypress, swamp cypress, white-cypress, tidewater red-cypress, gulf-cypress, red-cypress
Family (English): 
Family (Botanic): 
Tree or Plant Type: 
  • Tree
Native Locale: 
  • Illinois
  • North America
Planting Site: 
  • Residential and parks
  • City parkway
  • Wide median
  • Restricted sites
Landscape Uses: 
  • Specimen
  • Massing
Size Range: 
  • Large tree (more than 40 feet)
Mature Height: 
50-70 feet
Mature Width: 
20-30 feet
Light Exposure: 
  • Full sun (6 hrs direct light daily)
  • Partial sun/shade (4-6 hrs light daily)
Hardiness Zones: 
  • Zone 11
  • Zone 4
  • Zone 5
  • Zone 6
  • Zone 7
  • Zone 8
  • Zone 9
  • Zone 10
Soil Preference: 
  • Acid soil
  • Wet soil
Acid Soils: 
  • Prefers
Alkaline Soils: 
  • Moderately Tolerant
Salt Spray: 
  • Tolerant
Soil Salt: 
  • Intolerant
Drought Conditions: 
  • Moderately Tolerant
Poor Drainage: 
  • Tolerant
  • Deciduous (seasonally loses leaves)
Ornamental Interest: 
  • Fall color
  • Attractive bark
Season of Interest: 
  • Late summer
  • Early fall
  • Mid fall
Flower Color & Fragrance: 
  • Inconspicuous
Shape or Form: 
  • Pyramidal
Growth Rate: 
  • Moderate
Transplants Well: 
  • Yes
  • Birds
  • Small mammals
  • Water birds
More Information: 

Bald-cypress (Taxodium distichum)Bald-cypress (Taxodium distichum)photo: John Hagstrom

Tree & Plant Care

Best grown in full sun in wet, dry, and swampy locations.
Acid soils are best. May show chlorosis symptoms (yellowing) in high pH (alkaline) soil.

Disease, pests, and problems

The bald cypress is susceptible to twig blight, spider mite, gall forming mite, and cypress moths.

Native geographic location and habitat

Southern US, especially wetlands and coastal areas.

Bark color and texture 

Attractive, fibrous, reddish-brown bark.

Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture

Soft, feathery needles turn russet-red in autumn before falling. This is one of the few conifers (cone-bearing trees) that loses its needles in winter and grows a new set in spring.

Flower arrangement, shape, and size

Male and female flowers in separate structures on the same tree; inconspicuous.

Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions

Small round cones stay on branches into the winter.

Cultivars and their differences 

Casecade Falls (Taxodium distichum ‘Cascade Falls’) is a weeping form, 8 to 20 feet high.

Monarch of Illinois (Taxodium distichum ‘Monarch of Illinois’) is broadly pyramidal in shape, wider than the species.

Pendens (Taxodium distichum ‘Pendens’) has a pyramidal form with drooping branches.

Shawnee Brave® (Taxodium distichum ‘Mickelson’) is narrowly pyramidal, 50 feet high and 20 feet wide, good for small urban spaces.